Mainstream teachers' instructional adaptations: implications for inclusive responses
The aim of the study is to examine Greek mainstream teachers' views concerning the feasibility and desirability of routine instructional adaptations, and to explore the reasoning underpinning their responses. Data were collected by using interviews, which included both highly- and semi-structured (luestions.A modified version of the Teaching Adaptation Scale (TAS, Cardona-Molto, 2003) was used for the interview process.The scale allowed for the evaluation of teachers' perceptions of instructional adaptations and their feasibility and desirability in five out of the six original categories, including: a) Classroom Management, b) Grouping Strategies, c) Additional leaching, d) Activity Adjustment and e) Formative Assessment. The majority of participants reported that they use frequently most of the adaptations included whilst those used rarely or never used by teachers were: between-class grouping, activities at various levels of difficulty, diverse activities, specific resources and computers. These were also the adaptations -with the exception of using specific resources- that were deemed to be more desirable than feasible. At the same time, some adaptations were not desired by a minority of teachers including between-class grouping, grouping all students in pairs, providing additional teaching to certain subgroups in the class, implementing activities at various levels of difficulty, asking for diverse activities, and using alternative material, specific resources and computers. The most salient and recurrent finding was that all of the participants were strongly bounded by pace, curriculum and the implementation of the textbook. Lack of time and the overloaded syllabuses were reported as some of the main barriers prohibiting the implementation of adaptations. Further, the academic context seemed to influence the pattern of teachers' responses while a number of misconceptions were revealed in teachers' understanding and knowledge of particular adaptations. Implications in terms of teachers' training, inclusive responses and policy practices are discussed and analysed.