Activity of Tigecycline in Combination with Colistin, Meropenem, Rifampin, or Gentamicin against KPC-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in a Murine Thigh Infection Model
AuthorMichail, G.; Labrou, M.; Pitiriga, V.; Manousaka, S.; Sakellaridis, N.; Tsakris, A.; Pournaras, S.
Limited antimicrobials remain active for treating severe infections due to KPC-producing pathogens, and optimal regimens have not been established. In murine thigh infections caused by nine KPC-producing clinical strains of Enterobacteriaceae (meropenem MICs, 1 to 4 mu g/ml), we evaluated the activities of tigecycline, colistin, meropenem, rifampin, and gentamicin in single and combination regimens lasting for 24 h and 48 h. Rifampin, tigecycline, and gentamicin were the most effective monotherapies, reducing significantly the CFU counts yielded from thighs infected by 88.9 to 100%, 77.8 to 88.9%, and 66.7 to 88.9% of strains, respectively; meropenem and colistin alone exhibited considerably lower performance (significant CFU reduction in 33.3% and 22.2 to 33.3% of the strains, respectively). The addition of rifampin or gentamicin to tigecycline produced synergistic effect in most strains, while antagonism was observed in 33.3 to 44.4% of the strains when colistin was added to tigecycline and in 44.4 to 55.5% of the strains for meropenem combination with tigecycline. Tigecycline combinations with gentamicin or with rifampin caused higher CFU reductions than did tigecycline plus colistin or plus meropenem with almost all strains. Furthermore, tigecycline plus gentamicin was significantly more effective than tigecycline plus colistin or tigecycline plus meropenem in 33.3 to 44.4% and 55.5 to 66.7% of the strains, respectively, while tigecycline plus rifampin significantly outperformed tigecycline plus colistin and tigecycline plus meropenem in 33.3% and 66.7 to 77.8% of the strains, respectively. Overall, our in vivo study showed that tigecycline plus rifampin or plus gentamicin is a robust regimen against soft tissue infections caused by KPC-producing strains. The combinations of tigecycline with colistin or meropenem should be considered with caution in clinical practice.