Damage-associated molecular patterns derived from mitochondria may contribute to the hemodialysis-associated inflammation
Inflammation is common in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Mitochondrial damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are released during cell necrosis or apoptosis and induce inflammation. Cell apoptosis is increased in HD patients. The mitochondrial protein cytochrome c, as a marker of released mitochondrial DAMPs, and interleukin-6 (IL-6), as a marker of inflammation, were evaluated in HD patients. Thirty-four HD patients and 20 controls were enrolled in the study. Serum cytochrome c and IL-6 were measured by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Compared to controls, cytochrome c was markedly increased in HD patients (1392.88 +/- A 905.24 pg/mL vs. 212.95 +/- A 91.71 pg/mL). IL-6 was also significantly increased in HD patients (50.32 +/- A 35.89 pg/mL vs. 14.27 +/- A 6.83 pg/mL). In HD patients serum IL-6 was positively related to serum cytochrome c (r = 0.458). Both circulating cytochrome c and IL-6 are markedly increased in HD patients. Cytochrome c is positively related to IL-6.