|An annual and lumped water balance assessment of a water distribution network is recommended by the International Water Association as a first step and prerequisite for improving the performance of the network by minimizing real/physical water losses, burst incidents, water theft, nonrevenue water, and energy consumption, among others. The current work suggests a modeling approach for developing the water balance of a network spatio-temporarily, in hour time-scale and neighborhood granularity. It exploits already established key performance indicators and introduces some new ones to highlight the potential in improving the management of a water distribution network when having a detailed spatio-temporal supervision, especially when the spatial and temporal conditions are variable. The methodology is applied in a seasonally touristic and hilly case study. Additionally, a pressure management scheme is applied to further exploit the potential of such a toolkit. For the investigated case study, the town of Skiathos, the annual real losses are estimated equal to 50.9–52.2% of the system input volume, while apparent losses are estimated to be about 5.6–6.6%. Losses depict intense seasonal variability. Real losses range from 38.8–39.6% in summer months to 63.3–64.7% in winter months, while apparent losses range from 8.4–9.3% in summer to 1.3–2.5% in winter. Annual water theft is estimated to be at least 3.6% of system input volume. Spatial variability, which is linked to the elevation and the different urban land uses is proven to play a significant role in the neighborhoods’ water balances and various key performance indicators are suggested and applied for the pressure control scheme. The annual potential savings due to the applied scheme rise up to 51,300 m3 for leakage and 53,730 m3 for pressure-driven demand.
|Kofinas, Dimitris, Rafal Ulanczyk, and Chrysi S. Laspidou 2020. "Simulation of a Water Distribution Network with Key Performance Indicators for Spatio-Temporal Analysis and Operation of Highly Stressed Water Infrastructure" Water 12, no. 4: 1149. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041149