Achievement goals and self-talk in physical education: The moderating role of perceived competence
Self-talk plays a key role in performance and self-regulation. One of the antecedents that may influence individual's self-talk are achievement goal orientations. Three studies of 628, 313 and 1,169 participants were conducted to examine the relationships between positive and negative self-talk, perceived competence and achievement goals using two theoretical models of achievement goals. The participants completed the Automatic Self-Talk Questionnaire for Sports, the Task and Ego Orientation in Physical Education, the physical self-perception profile, and the Achievement Goal Questionnaire-Revised. The results revealed additive and interactive effects of achievement goals and perceived competence on students' positive and negative self-talk. Overall, the results stressed the potential role of achievement goals and perceived competence as personal factors that influence students' self-talk.