Dynamic Effect of Quadriceps Muscle Activation on Anterior Tibial Translation After Single-Bundle and Double-Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction
AutorTsarouhas, A.; Giakas, G.; Malizos, K. N.; Spiropoulos, G.; Sideris, V.; Koutedakis, Y.; Hantes, M. E.
Purpose: To examine differences in anterior tibial translation in 3 groups: single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-reconstructed, double-bundle ACL-reconstructed, and ACL-intact knees under gradual dynamic quadriceps muscle activation. Methods: Thirty male patients underwent successful single-bundle (n = 15) and double-bundle (n = 15) ACL reconstructions; 15 healthy controls were included in the study. Anterior tibial translation was assessed at 30 degrees of knee flexion in the resting position (0% quadriceps activation) and under 50% and 100% of maximum quadriceps concentric contraction using an isokinetic dynamometer with the KT-2000 arthrometer securely attached to the participants' knees. Results: The 2 ACL-reconstructed groups were similar regarding International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC), Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Score (KOOS), Tegner, and Lysholm scores and preliminary isokinetic evaluation (P = .38). Quadriceps activation significantly affected anterior tibial translation (P = .001, alpha = 0.98). In all 3 study groups, anterior tibial translation was significantly higher under 100% quadriceps activation compared with 0% contraction (P = .01) and 50% quadriceps activation (P = .047). There were no between-group differences in anterior tibial translation with 0%, 50%, or 100% quadriceps activation (P = .46). Conclusions: Under quadriceps muscle activation, anteroposterior knee laxity in ACL-intact and ACL-reconstructed knees is gradually increased. Single-bundle and double-bundle ACL-reconstructed knees show a similar increase in anterior tibial translation under gradual quadriceps contraction. When comparing different ACL reconstruction techniques in the experimental setting, dynamic, in addition to static, testing is advised to reach a comprehensive assessment of anteroposterior knee stability.