Dissemination of Clinical Isolates of Klebsiella oxytoca Harboring CMY-31, VIM-1, and a New OXY-2-Type Variant in the Community
AuthorTsakris, A.; Poulou, A.; Markou, F.; Pitiriga, V.; Piperaki, E. T.; Kristo, I.; Pournaras, S.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the epidemiological link of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella oxytoca isolates causing community-onset infections among patients attending our outpatient department and to investigate the underlying resistance mechanisms. The isolates were tested by agar dilution MICs, phenotypic carbapenemase testing, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). PCR assays and nucleotide sequencing were employed for the identification of bla gene types and the mapping of the integron-containing metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) gene. During the study period (January 2005 to April 2007), nine broad-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant K. oxytoca clinical isolates were prospectively collected from separate outpatients with urinary tract infections. In all cases, the patients had been hospitalized or exposed to health care facilities during the preceding year. Molecular typing revealed that all isolates belonged to the same K. oxytoca clonal type, which contained five PFGE subtypes. A novel chromosomal OXY-2 beta-lactamase type variant (OXY-2-9) was detected in all isolates, but no mutations in the promoter region justifying bla OXY gene overproduction were detected. In addition, all isolates harbored the plasmidic CMY-31 (LAT-4) AmpC cephalosporinase, while three of them harbored VIM-1 MBL in a class 1 integron structure. This is the first study to present the dissemination in the community of multidrug-resistant K. oxytoca isolates causing extrahospital infections.