Distributed dynamic scheduling for end-to-end rate guarantees in wireless ad hoc networks
We present a framework for the provision of deterministic end-to-end bandwidth guarantees in wireless ad hoc networks. Guided by a set of local feasibility conditions, multi-hop sessions are dynamically offered allocations, further translated to link demands. Using a distributed Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) protocol nodes adapt to the demand changes on their adjacent links by local, conflict-free slot reassignments. As soon as the demand changes stabilize, the nodes must incrementally converge to a TDMA schedule that realizes the global link (and session) demand allocation. We first derive sufficient local feasibility conditions for certain topology classes and show that trees can be maximally utilized. We then introduce a converging distributed link scheduling algorithm that exploits the logical tree structure that arises in several ad hoc network applications. Decoupling bandwidth allocation to multi-hop sessions from link scheduling allows support of various end-to-end Quality of Service (QoS) objectives. We focus on the max-min fairness (MMF) objective and design an end-to-end asynchronous distributed algorithm for the computation of the session MMF rates. Once the end-to-end algorithm converges, the link scheduling algorithm converges to a TDMA schedule that realizes these rates. We demonstrate the applicability of this framework through an implementation over an existing wireless technology. This implementation is free of restrictive assumptions of previous TDMA approaches: it does not require any a-priori knowledge on the number of nodes in the network nor even network-wide slot synchronization. Copyright 2005 ACM.
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