Worldwide variability of insecticide resistance mechanisms in the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)
The activity of detoxifying enzymes (glutathione-S-transferases (GST), mixed-function oxidases (MFO), and esterases (EST)) and the presence of insensitive variants of target proteins (sodium channel and acetylcholinesterase) were examined in individual male and female codling moths. Twenty-nine populations from 11 countries and two laboratory strains were examined. Populations were classified as either unsprayed or sprayed. The ranges of enzyme activities across field populations varied 15-fold, 485-fold and fourfold for GST, MFO and EST, respectively. MFO was the only enzyme whose activity differed in 1 binomial classification of orchards based on their spray history. Few differences in enzyme activities were found due to sex among populations; and, in these cases, males had higher GST and lower MFO and EST activities than females. Activities of the three enzymatic systems across all Populations were positively correlated. Populations from Greece, Argentina and Uruguay had significant percentages of moths with elevated GST and MFO activities. The co-occurrence of moths expressing both elevated MFO and low EST activities was found in conventional orchards from the Czech Republic and France. Chile was the only Country where Populations from treated orchards did not include a significant proportion of individuals with enhanced enzyme activity. The kdr mutation was found at significant levels in ten Populations from five countries, including all French and Argentinean populations. The mutation in AChE was only detected in the Spanish Population.