Raphidiopsis mediterranea Skuja represents non-heterocytous life-cycle stages of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Woloszynska) Seenayya et Subba Raju in Lake Kastoria (Greece), its type locality: Evidence by morphological and phylogenetic analysis
The taxonomical relationship of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii and Raphidiopsis mediterranea was studied by morphological and 16S rRNA gene diversity analyses of natural populations from Lake Kastoria, Greece. Samples were obtained during a bloom (23,830 trichomes mL(-1)) in August 2003. A high diversity of apical cell, trichome, heterocyte and akinete morphology, trichome fragmentation and reproduction was observed. Trichomes were grouped into three dominant morphotypes: the typical and the non-heterocytous morphotype of C. raciborskii and the typical morphotype of R. mediterranea. A morphometric comparison of the dominant morphotypes showed significant differences in mean values of cell and trichome sizes despite the high overlap in the range of the respective size values. Additionally, two new morphotypes representing developmental stages of the species are described while a new mode of reproduction involving a structurally distinct reproductive cell is described for the first time in planktic Nostocales. A putative life-cycle, common for C. raciborskii and R. mediterranea is proposed revealing that trichome reproduction of R. mediterranea gives rise both to R. mediterranea and C. raciborskii non-heterocytous morphotypes. The phylogenetic analysis of partial 16S rRNA gene (ca. 920 bp) of the co-existing Cylindrospermopsis and Raphidiopsis morphotypes revealed only one phylotype which showed 99.54% similarity to R. mediterranea HB2 (China) and 99.19% similarity to C. raciborskii form 1 (Australia). We propose that all morphotypes comprised stages of the life cycle of C. raciborkii whereas R. mediterranea from Lake Kastoria (its type locality) represents non-heterocytous stages of Cylindrospermopsis complex life cycle. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.