Instruments to Assess Secondhand Smoke Exposure in Large Cohorts of Never Smokers: The Smoke Scales
AuthorMisailidi, M.; Tzatzarakis, M. N.; Kavvalakis, M. P.; Koutedakis, Y.; Tsatsakis, A. M.; Flouris, A. D.
The objectives of this study were to: (i) to develop questionnaires that can identify never-smoking children and adults experiencing increased exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS+), (ii) to determine their validity against hair nicotine, and (iii) assess their reliability. A sample of 191 children (85 males; 106 females; 7-18 years) and 95 adult (23 males; 72 females; 1862 years) never-smokers consented to hair nicotine analysis and answered a large number of questions assessing all sources of SHS. A randomly-selected 30% answered the questions again after 20-30 days. Prevalence of SHS+ in children and adults was 0.52 +/- 0.07 and 0.67 +/- 0.10, respectively (p<0.05). The Smoke Scale for Children (SS-C) and the Smoke Scale for Adults (SS-A) were developed via factor analysis and included nine questions each. Positivity criteria for SS-C and SS-A via receiver operating characteristics curve analysis were identified at >16.5 and >16, respectively. Significant Kappa agreement (p<0.05) was confirmed when comparing the SS-C and SS-A to hair nicotine concentration. Reliability analyses demonstrated that the SS-C and SS-A scores obtained on two different days are highly correlated (p<0.001) and not significantly different (p>0.05). Area under the curve and McNemar's Chi-square showed no pair-wise differences in sensitivity and specificity at the cutoff point between the two different days for SS-C and SS-A (p>0.05). We conclude that the SS-C and the SS-A represent valid, reliable, practical, and inexpensive instruments to identify children and adult never-smokers exposed to increased SHS. Future research should aim to further increase the validity of the two questionnaires.
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Five-Year Trends of Second-Hand Smoke Exposure in Greece: A Comparison Between Complete, Partial, and Prelegislation Levels Vardavas, C. I.; Anagnostopoulos, N.; Patelarou, E.; Minas, M.; Nakou, C.; Dramba, V.; Giourgouli, G.; Bagkeris, E.; Gourgoulianis, K.; Pattaka, P.; Antoniadis, A.; Lionis, C.; Bertic, M.; Dockery, D.; Connolly, G. N.; Behrakis, P. K. (2012)Background: Our aim was to assess second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure in hospitality venues after the smoke-free legislation implemented in September 2010 in Greece and to compare with when a partial ban was in place and in ...
Flouris, A. D.; Koutedakis, Y. (2011)Purpose of review This review critically evaluates the existing biological evidence regarding the immediate and short-term respiratory consequences of secondhand smoke (SHS). Recent findings A 1-h exposure to SHS at ...
Dinas, P. C.; Metsios, G. S.; Jamurtas, A. Z.; Tzatzarakis, M. N.; Hayes, A. W.; Koutedakis, Y.; Tsatsakis, A. M.; Flouris, A. D. (2014)We assessed the acute effects of a 1-h exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) on complete blood count (CBC) markers in a controlled simulated bar/restaurant environment. Nineteen adult never-smokers completed a 1-h .exposure ...