Leptin concentrations in the follicular phase of spontaneous cycles and cycles superovulated with follicle stimulating hormone
It has been reported that oestradiol may play a role in the production of leptin from adipocytes, To investigate this relationship further, nine normally ovulating women were studied during two menstrual cycles, i.e. an untreated spontaneous cycle and a cycle treated with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) from cycle day 2 until the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) injection, Serum leptin values on cycle day 2 did not differ significantly between the spontaneous and the FSH cycles. In the spontaneous cycles, leptin values declined gradually and significantly up to day 7 and then increased progressively up to the day of luteinizing hormone (LH) surge onset, at which point they achieved the highest values, In the FSH cycles, serum leptin values increased gradually and significantly up to day 6, remaining stable thereafter, and were in the midfollicular phase significantly higher than in the spontaneous cycles. Significant positive correlations were found between mean values of leptin and mean values of oestradiol during the second half of the follicular phase in the spontaneous cycles and during the first half in the FSH cycles, A significant negative correlation was found between these two parameters in the spontaneous cycles during the first half of the follicular phase. Serum leptin levels were significantly higher in the midluteal than in the follicular phase in both cycles. These results demonstrate for the first time significant changes in leptin values during the follicular phase of the human menstrual cycle and a significant increase during superovulation induction with FSH. It is suggested that oestradiol may be involved in the regulation of leptin production in women.