The effects of self-talk and goal setting on self-regulation of learning a new motor skill in physical education
This study examined the effects of self-talk and goal setting on self-regulation of learning a dart-throwing skill in physical education. Eighty-five fifth- and sixth-grade students (M age = 11.01, SD = 0.67yrs.) were randomly assigned to four experimental (2 Self-talk × 2 Goal type) groups and one control group. Results showed that students who combined self-talk with either process goals or performance goals outperformed students in the goal only and control group conditions. No difference emerged among the groups on self-efficacy, satisfaction, and enjoyment. These results showed that self-talk was effective in enhancing performance in physical education and are discussed with reference to the social-cognitive model of self-regulated learning. © 2012 Copyright International Society of Sport Psychology.