Anti-inflammatory effects of a special carbohydrate-whey protein cake after exhaustive cycling in humans
AuthorKerasioti, E.; Stagos, D.; Jamurtas, A.; Kiskini, A.; Koutedakis, Y.; Goutzourelas, N.; Pournaras, S.; Tsatsakis, A. M.; Kouretas, D.
Intense exercise induces increased levels of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a special cake (consisting of carbohydrate to whey protein 3.5:1) vs. an isocaloric carbohydrate cake on inflammatory markers after exhaustive cycling in humans. Nine subjects received either the experimental or placebo cake in a counterbalanced fashion using a crossover, double-blind, repeated-measures design. They performed one trial involving a 2 h exercise on a cycle ergometer at 60-65% VO(2)max followed by a 4 h recovery and then a second trial involving an 1 h exercise at 60-65% VO(2)max which was increased at 95% VO(2)max. Blood samples were collected pre-exercise, 30 min and 4 h post-exercise, post-time Trial and 48 h post-time Trial. Cakes were consumed immediately post-exercise and every 1 h for the next 3 h. The results showed that consumption of the experimental cake reduced significantly (p < 0.05), 4 h post-exercise, the pro-inflammatory protein levels IL-6 and CRP compared to the control group by 50% and 46% respectively. Moreover, in the experimental cake group, the level of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was higher by 118%, 4 h post-exercise, compared to the control group but not statistically significant. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.