Leaching of the organophosphorus nematicide fosthiazate
Fosthiazate is an organophosphorus nematicide which was recently included in Annex I of the Directive 91/414/EEC under the clause that it should be used with special care in soils vulnerable to leaching. Thus, the leaching of fosthiazate was investigated in columns packed with three different soils which represented situations of high (site 2), intermediate (site 1) and low (site 3) leaching potential. The recommended dose of fosthiazate was applied at the surface of the soil columns and fosthiazate fate and transport was investigated for the next two months. Fosthiazate concentrations in the leachate collected from the bottom of the columns packed with soil from site 2 exceeded 0.1 μg l-1 in most cases. This soil was characterized as acidic, indicating longer fosthiazate persistence, with low organic matter content, indicating weak adsorption, thus representing a situation vulnerable to leaching. In contrast, the lowest concentrations of fosthiazate in the leachate were evident in the columns packed with soil from site 3. This soil was characterized as alkaline, indicating faster degradation, with higher organic matter content, indicating stronger adsorption, thus representing a situation not favoring leaching of fosthiazate. The highest concentration of fosthiazate in the leachate from the columns packed with soil from site 2 was 3.44 μg l-1 compared to 1.17 and 0.16 μg l-1, which were the corresponding maximum values measured in columns packed with soil from sites 1 and 3, respectively. The results of the current study further suggest that fosthiazate is mobile in soil and can leach under conducive soil conditions like acidic soils with low organic matter content. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.