Diapause Termination in Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) under Laboratory and Field Conditions
The influence of photoperiod and temperature on the termination of diapause of Sesamia nonagrioides (Levebvre) was evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. Long-day photoperiod enhanced termination of diapause. Larvae held under a short-day photoperiod (10:14 [L:D] h) for various times and then transferred to a long-day photoperiod (16:8 [L:D] h) proceeded to pupate in ≈14 d, indicating that regardless of the state of diapause intensity, diapause completion and postdiapause development lasted similar lengths of time. Larval diapause termination was not hastened when diapausing larvae kept at a photoperiod of 10:14 (L:D) h and 25°C were exposed for short periods at 30, 35, and 40°C, whereas it was shortened when diapausing larvae were transferred from 25 to 30°C and kept continuously at this temperature. At higher temperatures (35 and 40°C), all transferred larvae died. It was also shown that exposure of diapausing larvae to low temperature (5°C) simply accelerated diapause development but termination of diapause did not require a period of chilling. Moreover, after low temperature treatment, diapausing larvae showed a faster diapause development when transferred to a long-day photoperiod than those kept in a short-day photoperiod. In the latter case, the longer the exposure the faster the termination occurred. Diapause termination of field-collected larvae was practically spontaneous. After transfer to laboratory conditions, 25°C and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h, they quickly proceeded to pupate. Field-diapausing larvae terminated diapause in January but exhibited a postdiapause development; the 1st record of pupation was observed in the field at the end of March.