Effect of larval density on development and diapause of Sesamia nonagrioides (Lef.) (Lep., Noctuidae) under laboratory conditions
The effect of larval density on development and diapause of Sesamia nonagrioides (Lef.) was examined. Larvae were grown on an artificial diet at densities of five, 10, 20, 30 and 40 larvae per box, under two environmental (diapause-including and diapause-averting) conditions. High larval densities resulted in increased mortality under both experimental conditions tested. Although crowded larvae showed a higher pupation rate than those reared under low densities, small differences occurred between mean larval developmental time at different densities under developmental condition. In spite of this, crowding proved effective on the intensity of diapause of this species and the duration of diapause was shorter for crowded larvae. Pupal weights of both sexes were significantly reduced at high densities while there were significant differences between pupal weights formed by larvae reared under diapause conditions and those formed by larvae reared under nondiapause conditions at all density treatments. The pupal period was significantly longer under diapause conditions than that under development conditions but density was not found to play a role on the time of the emergence of the adults produced by larvae reared under developmental or diapause conditions.