Inhibition of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase in mixed lymphocyte reaction affects glucose influx and enzymes involved in aerobic glycolysis and glutaminolysis in alloreactive T-cells
AuthorEleftheriadis, T.; Pissas, G.; Yiannaki, E.; Markala, D.; Arampatzis, S.; Antoniadi, G.; Liakopoulos, V.; Stefanidis, I.
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) suppresses adaptive immunity. T-cell proliferation and differentiation to effector cells require increased glucose consumption, aerobic glycolysis and glutaminolysis. The effect of IDO on the above metabolic pathways was evaluated in alloreactive T-cells. Mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) in the presence or not of the IDO inhibitor, 1-methyl-DL-tryptophan (1-MT), was used. In MLRs, 1-MT decreased tryptophan consumption, increased cell proliferation, glucose influx and lactate production, whereas it decreased tricarboxylic acid cycle activity. In T-cells, from the two pathways that could sense tryptophan depletion, i.e. general control nonrepressed 2 (GCN2) kinase and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1, 1-MT reduced only the activity of the GCN2 kinase. Additionally 1-MT treatment of MLRs altered the expression and/or the phosphorylation state of glucose transporter-1 and of key enzymes involved in glucose metabolism and glutaminolysis in alloreactive T-cells in a way that favors glucose influx, aerobic glycolysis and glutaminolysis. Thus in alloreactive T-cells, IDO through activation of the GCN2 kinase, decreases glucose influx and alters key enzymes involved in metabolism, decreasing aerobic glycolysis and glutaminolysis. Acting in such a way, IDO could be considered as a constraining factor for alloreactive T-cell proliferation and differentiation to effector T-cell subtypes. (C) 2013 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.