Λίθινα εργαλεία εκ Κεφαλληνίας
Υπηρεσία Αρχαιοτήτων και Αναστηλώσεως
Αρχαιολογικόν Δελτίον, 1960, Τόμος 16, Κείμενον/Μέρος Α’, 41-45.
Traces of man dating from before the Neolithic period in Greece, even after the discoveries claimed to have been made by Markowitz in Megara and by Stampfuss in the Seidi-cave in Copais, were rather doubtful. Only after the revolutionary observations of Prof. Milojcic in Thessaly was the Palaeolithic age established for this region. Since then, more discoveries have been announced; in particular four stone implements from Elis were published as Palaeolithic and one single piece from Argolis has recently been published as belonging to the «Levalloisian type». This last implement was found by Jameson in Riniza, not far from Ermione and published by him and by P. Bialor in AJA 66 (1962) p.p. 181 - 182, with hgures and further bibliography. The question of the date of such flint or obsidian implements found on the surface of the soil, without stratigraphical evidence, still remains problematic. Typological examination is no definite guidance. In order to help establish a more accurate date, some implements from Kephallenia are published here for the first time, though their study is not yet ready. They are a characteristic series of flint implements and flakes (a few of obsidian), together with a flint arrow head. They were collected on the surface of the soil near Skala, on the South East coast of Kephallenia. The site is nearly two miles long and the implements are numerous. As flint is native in Kephallenia, there is no doubt that the implements were fabricated on the spot. There are several such places on other points of the Island and it seems that near Chaliotata (district of Same) the number of flint implements is still greater than at Skala. There are mainly four chief types: a long dagger of «stiletto» section (10 cm or even longer); broad and flat scrapers (sometimes almost 10 cm. long); triangular, very irregular «arrowheads»; and long or short flakes of triangular or trapezoid section. A characteristic of all these implements is that they are made by perpendicular percussion and that they show no further finishing by side-percussion on the edges. Only in rare examples and in the unique flint arrow-head have we the minute splitting to give the form desired. These facts as well as the absence of any Neolithic celt among the Kephallenian finds seem to indicate that the flint and obsidian implements in question are, at least partly, late and indeed very late. They may belong to an advanced stage of the bronze-period; they may have been reproduced owing to conservatisme in these remote Western districts, just as the hand-made plain pottery contemporaneous with the late Mycenaean ware. Similar flint and obsidian implements are known from other districts, particularly from Leucas. These last specimens, as far as found in the Choirospelia-cave, may be partly Neolithic, but the greater bulk was found in the Nidri-plain and in the Achaen tombs and surely belong to the 2nd millenary. It is certain that the Kephallenian flint-industry exceeded local needs and that export was made, for instance to Leucas or to Elis. It may be, that this industry went as far as Lipari and that the obsidian found in Kephallenia was from Lipari rather than from Melos; but further search is needed before we can say anything more precise about this.