Αναγνώριση ιδιομορφικών χαρακτηριστικών κατασκεύων βάσει μετρήσεων των ταλαντώσεων σε περιβαλλοντικές και σεισμικές διεγέρσεις : θεωρία, λογισμικό και εφαρμογές
Experimental modal analysis using ambient and earthquake vibrations : theory, software and applications
This thesis addresses the problem of identifying the modal properties of structures using vibration measurements. Modal identification methodologies are proposed based on vibration measurements induced by artificial, ambient or earthquake loads applied on the structure. A modal model of the structure is identified using a weighted least-squares approach and measured time histories at selected locations of a structure. For artificially induced and ambient vibration measurements, the identification is performed in the frequency domain using respectively frequency response functions and cross power spectral densities. For earthquake induced vibrations, the identification is performed in both time and frequency domains. The modal identification methods presented in this work treat generalized non-classically damped modal models. The identification of the modal parameter (modal frequencies, modal damping ratios, modeshape components and modal participation factors) is accomplished by introducing a computationally very efficient three step approach as follows. In the first step, stabilization diagrams are constructed containing frequency and damping information. The modeshape components and participation factors are estimated in a second least-squares step, based on the user selection of the stabilized poles. The first two steps involve non-iterative procedures and result in solving linear algebraic systems of equations. Finally, in order to improve the estimation of the modal characteristics, especially for the challenging case of closely spaced and overlapping modes, a third step is introduced to solve a fully nonlinear optimization problem using available iterative gradient-based optimization algorithms. In this thesis, theoretical developments as well as software implementation issues are presented. The methodologies and software developed are applied for the identification of the modal characteristics of a small laboratory structure for the case of artificial induced vibration measurements, as well as the identification of the modal characteristics of three bridges, the under construction R/C bridge of Egnatia Odos located at Metsovo (Greece), and two other representative R/C bridges of Egnatia Odos located at Polymylos and Kavala (Greece) for the cases of ambient and earthquake induced vibration measurements. Results provide qualitative and quantitative information on the dynamic behaviour of the systems and their components under different types of excitations. All modal identification methodologies presented in this work are implemented in user-friendly software, termed Modal Identification Tool (MITooL). The software which includes graphical user interface allows the full exploration and analysis of signals that are measured on a structure when it is excited by artificial, ambient or earthquake loads. A user manual is also presented which gives details for the operations and prospects of the MITooL software. Step-by-step examples of modal identification are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the software.
Πανεπιστήμιο Θεσσαλίας. Πολυτεχνική Σχολή. Τμήμα Μηχανολόγων Μηχανικών.