Renal Manifestations and Complications of Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Renal manifestations and complications are not rare in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and may present as nephrolithiasis, amyloidosis, tubulointerstitial nephritis, and glomerulonephritis. Symptoms of renal impairment are not always specific and since the underlying bowel disease is preponderant, renal function deterioration may be underestimated. Additionally, medical treatment of patients with IBD such as aminosalicylates, cyclosporine, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors can cause renal complications, although direct correlation to bowel disease is not always clear. The well-documented renal manifestations and complications of IBD, as well as the possible renal side effects of new drugs, emphasize the need for periodic evaluation of renal function. New markers of renal function may facilitate early diagnosis and unravel the complex mechanisms responsible for kidney damage. The purpose of this review is to summarize the renal manifestations and complications as well as the markers of renal function utilized in IBD, attempting to shed more light on the pathophysiology of renal damage in IBD.