Radiological and radiotherapeutic approaching of pediatric tumors in head and neck area
AuthorZygogianni, A.; Kyrgias, G.; Kouvaris, J.; Alexopoulou, E.; Zefkili, S.; Theodorou, K.; Capezzali, G.; Mazioti, A.; Kirova, Y.; Antypas, C.; Armpilia, C.; Efstathopoulos, E.; Kelekis, N.; Kouloulias, V.
The most common pediatric malignancies in head and neck area consisted of lymphoma, leukemia, brain tumors, neuroblastoma, Wilms' tumor, sarcomas and primarily rhabdomyosarcoma. This review reports in brief radiological diagnosis and staging together with radiation treatment, in terms of common clinical practice. Ultrasound, computerized tomography, Magnetic resonance Imaging and lately Positron Emission Tomography are playing an important diagnostic role, which is discussed. Further, the radiation treatment represents also an important weapon against pediatric neoplasia. In general the prescribed dose is 35 (1.7Gy per fraction), 24 (1.6Gy per fraction) and 54-60Gy (1.8Gy per fraction), for lymphoma, leukemia and CNS tumors, respectively. Modern techniques such as IMRT and protons, offers a lot, although not wide spreading yet. The main aspect related to irradiation in pediatric tumors in head and neck area, is the long-term radiation induced toxicity, which is also analyzed in details.
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