Determination of Pesticide Residues in Honey by Single-Drop Microextraction and Gas Chromatography
A novel, simple, and rapid single-drop microextraction (SOME) procedure combined with GC has been developed, validated, and applied for the determination of multiclass pesticide residues in honey samples. The SDME was optimized using a Plackett-Burman screening design considering all parameters that may influence an SOME procedure and a consequent central composite design to control the parameters that were found to significantly influence the pesticide determination. The developed analytical method required minimal volumes of organic solvents and exhibited good analytical characteristics with enrichment factors ranging from 3 for alpha-endosulfan to 10 for lindane, procymidone, and captan and method quantification limits ranging from 0.03 mu g/kg for phosalone to 10.6 mu g/kg for diazinon. The relative recoveries obtained ranged from 70.8% for captan to 120% for fenarimol, and the precision (RSD) ranged from 3 to 15%. The proposed SDME procedure followed by GC with an electron capture detector for quantification and GC/MS for identification was applied with success to the analysis of 17 honey samples. Monitoring results indicated a low level of honey contamination by diazinon, chlorpyrifosethyl, procymidone, bromopropylate, and endosulfan (alpha-, beta-, and endosulfan sulfate) residues that were far below the maximum residue limit values specified by the European Union for endosulfan (10 mu g/kg) and bromopropylate (100 mu g/kg) in honey samples.