Expression of Leukotriene Biosynthetic Enzymes in Tonsillar Tissue of Children With Obstructive Sleep Apnea A Prospective Nonrandomized Study
AuthorTsaoussoglou, M.; Hatzinikolaou, S.; Baltatzis, G. E.; Lianou, L.; Maragozidis, P.; Balatsos, N. A. A.; Chrousos, G.; Kaditis, A. G.
IMPORTANCE Cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) potentially promote adenotonsillar hypertrophy in children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Previous studies have identified CysLTs and their receptors in tonsillar tissue from children with OSA. OBJECTIVE To demonstrate expression of the leukotriene biosynthetic enzymes 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP), leukotriene A(4) hydrolase (LTA(4)H), and leukotriene C-4 synthase (LTC4S) in T and B tonsillar lymphocytes from pediatric patients with OSA. It was hypothesized that children with OSA have greater expression of biosynthetic enzymes for CysLTs (5-LO, FLAP, and LTC4S) in their tonsillar tissue than do children with recurrent tonsillitis (RT), who were enrolled as controls. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This prospective, nonrandomized study was performed at a tertiary care university hospital on 13 children with OSA and adenotonsillar hypertrophy undergoing adenotonsillectomy and 12 children without OSA also undergoing tonsillectomy for RT. Tonsillar tissue from children with OSA or RT was examined for 5-LO, FLAP, LTA(4)H, and LTC4S expression under real time-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), flow cytometry (FC), and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CM). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Expression of biosynthetic enzymes for CysLTs (5-LO, FLAP, and LTC4S) was the main outcome measure. Patients with OSA and control patients with RT were compared for numbers of copies of 5-LO, FLAP, and LTC4S messenger RNA (by RT-qPCR) in T or B tonsillar lymphocytes and proportions of CD3(+) or CD19(+) tonsillar lymphocytes that expressed 5-LO, FLAP, and LTC4S (by FC). RESULTS Messenger RNA for all 4 enzymes was detected in T and B lymphocytes from both study groups, and expression of all biosynthetic enzymes was demonstrated in participants with OSA and RT by FC. Patients with OSA differed from controls in the proportions (median [10th-90th percentile]) of LTC4S+ CD3(+) T lymphocytes (23.31% [8.64%-50.07%] vs 10.81% [3.48%-23.32%], respectively) (P = .01) and LTC4S+ CD19(+) B lymphocytes (20.66% [14.62%-65.77%] vs 12.53%[2.87%-36.64%], respectively) (P = .01) detected by FC. Immunoreactivity for the 4 enzymes was detected by CM in B lymphocytes of mantle zones and T lymphocytes of extrafollicular areas. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Leukotriene biosynthetic enzymes are expressed in tonsillar lymphocytes, and the previously reported detection of CysLTs in tonsillar tissue from children with OSA may be attributed to endogenous synthesis. Enhanced expression of LTC4S is a potential target for pharmacologic interventions in OSA.