Association of treatment for bacterial meningitis with the development of sequelae
AuthorTheodoridou, K.; Vasilopoulou, V. A.; Katsiaflaka, A.; Theodoridou, M. N.; Roka, V.; Rachiotis, G.; Hadjichristodoulou, C. S.
Background: Bacterial meningitis continues to be a serious, often disabling infectious disease. The aim of this study was to assess the possibility that treatment influences the development of sequelae in childhood bacterial meningitis. Methods: Two thousand four hundred and seventy-seven patients aged 1 month to 14 years with acute bacterial meningitis over a 32-year period were enrolled in the study. Data were collected prospectively from the Meningitis Registry of a tertiary university teaching hospital in Athens, Greece. Treatment was evaluated through univariate and multivariate analysis with regard to sequelae: seizure disorder, severe hearing loss, ventriculitis, and hydrocephalus. Results: According to the multinomial logistic regression analysis, there was evidence that penicillin, an all-time classic antibiotic, had a protective effect on the occurrence of ventriculitis (odds ratio (OR) 0.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.05-0.60), while patients treated with chloramphenicol had an elevated risk of ventriculitis (OR 17.77 95% CI 4.36-72.41) and seizure disorder (OR 4.72, 95% CI 1.12-19.96). Cephalosporins were related to an increased risk of hydrocephalus (OR 5.24, 95% CI 1.05-26.29) and ventriculitis (OR 5.72, 95% CI 1.27-25.76). The use of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole increased the probability of seizure disorder (OR 3.26, 95% CI 1.08-9.84) and ventriculitis (OR 8.60, 95% CI 2.97-24.91). Hydrocortisone was associated with a rise in hydrocephalus (OR 5.44, 95% CI 1.23-23.45), while a protective effect of dexamethasone (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.18-3.79) was not statistically significant. Conclusions: Current study findings suggest that the type of antimicrobial treatment for childhood bacterial meningitis may influence in either a positive or a negative way the development of neurological sequelae. (C) 2013 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.