The effect of coagulation on the toxicity and mutagenicity of reclaimed municipal effluents
AuthorPetala, M.; Samaras, P.; Kungolos, A.; Zouboulis, A.; Papadopoulos, A.; Sakellaropoulos, G. P.
The objectives of this work were the assessment of the effectiveness of coagulation on the reclamation of secondary effluents and the evaluation of the quality of reclaimed waters by the examination of their ecotoxic and mutagenic properties. Aluminum coagulants resulted in higher removal of organic content, than iron coagulant, reaching up to 40%; the removal of heavy metals, such as zinc and copper was enhanced by the addition of a low strength anionic flocculant. The toxicity of pre-concentrated samples to the bacteria Vibrio fischerii was related to the heavy metal content, especially zinc and copper, indicating the significance of the metals bioavailability and their potential interactive effects. The secondary effluents exhibited mutagenic effects on strain TA 98; these effects were increased during coagulation with ferric chloride (both in absence and presence of flocculant). However, the addition of aluminum coagulants resulted in a decrease of mutagenic potential of secondary effluents, due to the extended removal of organic matter. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.