Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) response to three music stimuli (Mozart-"Eine Kleine Nachtmusik," Anonymous-"Romanza," Bach-"Violin Concerto No. 1") and white noise under recirculating water conditions
AuthorPapoutsoglou, S. E.; Karakatsouli, N.; Psarrou, A.; Apostolidou, S.; Papoutsoglou, E. S.; Batzina, A.; Leondaritis, G.; Sakellaridis, N.
This study presents the results of the response of Sparus aurata to three different musical stimuli, derived from the transmission (4 h per day, 5 days per week) of particular music pieces by Mozart, Romanza and Bach (140 dB(rms) re 1 mu Pa), compared to the same transmission level of white noise, while the underwater ambient noise in all the experimental tanks was 121 dB(rms) re 1 mu Pa. Using recirculating sea water facilities, 10 groups, 2 for each treatment, of 20 specimens of 11.2 +/- A 0.02 g (S.E.), were reared for 94 days, under 150 +/- A 10 lx 12L-12D, and were fed an artificial diet three times per day. Fish body weight showed significant differences after 55 days, while its maximum level was observed after the 69th day until the end of the experiment, the highest value demonstrated in Mozart (M) groups, followed by those of Romanza (R), Bach (B), control (C) and white noise (WN). SGR (M = B), %WG (M = B) and FCR (all groups fed same % b.w.) were also improved for M group. Brain neurotransmitters results exhibited significant differences in DA-dopamine, (M > B), 5HIAA (C > B), 5HIAA:5HT (WN > R), DOPAC (M > B), DOPAC:DA and (DOPAC + HVA):DA, (C > M), while no significant differences were observed in 5HT, NA, HVA and HVA:DA. No differences were observed in biometric measurements, protease activity, % fatty acids of fillet, visceral fat and liver, while differences were observed regarding carbohydrase activity and the amount (mg/g w.w.) of some fatty acids in liver, fillet and visceral fat. In conclusion, present results confirm those reported for S. aurata, concerning the observed relaxing influence-due to its brain neurotransmitters action-of the transmission of Mozart music (compared to R and B), which resulted in the achievement of maximum growth rate, body weight and improved FCR. This conclusion definitely supports the musical "understanding" and sensitivity of S. aurata to music stimuli as well as suggesting a specific effect of white noise.