Motivational climate and achievement goals at the situational level of generality
Based on the rule of compatibility, according to which motivational climate scales should capture both the objective environment and whether it activates particular goals, a measure is presented assessing achievement goals and climate perceptions in physical education at a particular point of time. In Study 1, students completed the questionnaires following an experimental manipulation where eight classes had task-involving drills (n = 185 students), eight classes had ego-involving drills (n = 174 students) and nine classes (n = 221) served as the control group. Study 2 was an intervention consisting of nine consecutive physical education lessons. Students in the intervention group (n = 174) pursued mastery goals and control group students (n = 181) participated in typical classes. Questionnaires were completed prior to the intervention and every third lesson. The structure of the model consisting of four achievement goals (mastery, performance approach, performance avoidance, and social approval) and four perceptions of teachers' emphasis on these goals was satisfactory and superior to the structure of all alternative models. Factor correlation results and the relationship of the current scales with intrinsic-extrinsic motivation and amotivation provided evidence of convergent and divergent validity for the measures. Results from multi-sample confirmatory factor analyses supported the invariance of factor loadings across samples and the invariance of covariances for the goals construct. In both studies, the differences that emerged between groups provided additional support to the construct validity of the present scales. Practitioners interested in the effects of teaching and coaching on motivational climate and achievement goal adoption could acquire useful feedback using these scales.