Artificially-born "killer" lake: Phytoplankton based water quality and microcystin affected fish in a reconstructed lake
Lake Karla (Greece) is an example of a lake ecosystem which was dried in 1960's and now is restored, facing various anthropogenic pressures, whereas it is also listed in the network of Greek protected areas in terms of its conservation value. The objective of the present study was to determine the presence of microcystins (MCYST) in the lake water and their accumulation in tissues of the commercial fish species Cyprinus carpio, along with the highlighting of phytoplankton community and general limnological features of Lake Karla, a newly reconstructed lake, the first year of its refilling. MCYST concentrations in water and fish tissues were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results suggest that Lake Karla has undergone a progressive cultural eutrophication with frequent cyanobacterial blooms. The most dominant species in lake's phytoplankton were Anabaenopsis elenkinii, Sphaerospermopsis and Planktothrix agardhii. MCYST concentrations were detected in water samples comparable to those reported for other eutrophicated Mediterranean lakes while considerable amounts of MCYST were detected in the tissues of the species C carpio in the following order: liver>kidney>brain>intestine>muscles. The presence of prominent cyanobacterial blooms dominated by toxic species highlights the need to undertake eutrophication control measures so as to avoid further toxicological problems. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.