Calprotectin, Calgranulin C, and Other Members of the S100 Protein Family in Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Background Since their discovery, S100 proteins have been associated with diverse diseases of inflammatory, degenerative, or malignant nature. Due to their participation in inflammation, they have also been studied with regard to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Method To provide a review of available literature, a PubMed, MEDLINE, and Embase-based literature search was performed, using all available nomenclature for each member of the S100 protein family, along with the terms inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, or indeterminate colitis. Result S100A8/A9, also known as calprotectin, S100A12, or calgranulin C and in a lesser extent S100P, are involved in the pathogenesis, activity, diagnosis, and therapeutic management of IBD. The majority of available literature is focused primarily on S100A8/9, although there is growing evidence on the significance of S100A12. Most studies emphasize the potential merit of S100A8/A9 and S100A12, as markers for differential diagnosis, monitoring of activity, or disease relapse, in IBD. Limitations, regarding the diagnostic utility of these markers, seem to exist and are mainly related to the publication of conflicting results, i.e., for IBD activity, and to the fact that S100A8/A9 and S100A12 are not disease-specific. Conclusions Although the existing data link specific S100 proteins with IBD, there are still several drawbacks in the use of these markers for diagnostic purposes. Thus, it seems that further research is mandatory in order to eliminate the impact of confounding factors but also to detect additional associations between S100 proteins and IBD or novel S100 proteins with a closer correlation with IBD.