Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound for bone healing: An overview
Low-intensity ultrasound is a biophysical form of intervention in the fracture-repair process, which through several mechanisms accelerates healing of fresh fractures and enhances callus formation in delayed unions and nonunions. The goal of this review is to present the current knowledge obtained from basic science and animal studies, as well as existing evidence from clinical trials and case series with the different applications of ultrasound in the management of fractures, delayed unions, nonunions and distraction osteogenesis. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound is currently applied transcutaneoulsy, although recent experimental studies have proven the efficacy of a trans-osseous application for both enhancement and monitoring of the bone healing process with modern smart implant technologies. (C) 2006 Published by Elsevier Ltd.