The labdane diterpene sclareol (labd-14-ene-8, 13-diol) induces apoptosis in human tumor cell lines and suppression of tumor growth in vivo via a p53-independent mechanism of action
AuthorMahaira, L. G.; Tsimplouli, C.; Sakellaridis, N.; Alevizopoulos, K.; Demetzos, C.; Han, Z.; Pantazis, P.; Dimas, K.
The labdane diterpene sclareol has demonstrated significant cytotoxicity against human tumor cell lines and human colon cancer xenografts. Therefore, there is need to elucidate the mode of action of this compound as very little information is known for the anticancer activity of sclareol and other labdane diterpenes, in general. COMPARE analysis of GI50 values for a number of human cancer cell lines was initially implicated in an effort to assign a putative mechanism of action to the compound. Sclareol-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were assessed by flow cytometry and Western blot analyses. Finally, the anticancer ability of sclareol in vivo was assessed by using human colon cancer xenograft/mouse models. Sclareol arrested in vitro the growth of p53-deficient (HCT116p53-/-) human colon cancer cells and subsequently induced apoptosis by activating both caspases-8 and -9. Intraperitoneal administration of liposome-encapsulated sclareol at the maximum tolerated dose induced a marked growth suppression of HCT116p53-/- tumors established as xenografts in immunodeficient NOD/SCID mice. In conclusion, we demonstrate herein that sclareol kills human tumor cells by inducing arrest at the G1-phase of the cell cycle followed by apoptosis that involves activation of caspases-8, -9 and -3 via a p53-independent mechanism. These findings suggest that liposome-encapsulated sclareol possesses chemotherapeutic potential for the treatment of colorectal and other types of human cancer regardless of the p53-status. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
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