The sanctuary of Titane and the city of Sikyon
The Sikyonian site of Titane lies on the eastern slopes of Vesiza, c. 11 km south-west of Sikyon, and some 8.5 km to the north of the Arkadian city of Phlious. The purpose of this study is to examine Titane in relation to Sikyon based on ancient testimonia and the results of my archaeological survey carried out between 1996 and 2002. It is argued that Titane was not a town but a sanctuary, perhaps the most important sanctuary of the Sikyonia in antiquity. The fortifications previously interpreted as an acropolis wall belong to a fort built later within the sanctuary because of its strategic location close to the southern borders of the city-state. Furthermore, the discovery of early Iron Age material on the site and the early cult practices mentioned by Pausanias show that the sanctuary was established in the Geometric period, i.e. during the period of formation of the polis. Finally, it is suggested that a main reason for the foundation of the sanctuary on the slopes of Vesiza was the sacred demarcation of the southern reaches of the Sikyonian city-state.