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dc.creatorKoutsokera, A.en
dc.creatorLoukides, S.en
dc.creatorGourgoulianis, K. I.en
dc.creatorKostikas, K.en
dc.date.accessioned2015-11-23T10:36:44Z
dc.date.available2015-11-23T10:36:44Z
dc.date.issued2008
dc.identifier10.2174/092986708783769768
dc.identifier.issn9298673
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11615/29959
dc.description.abstractThe need for non-invasive assessment of airway inflammation is imperative, since inflammatory airway diseases, such as asthma and COPD, are characterized by variation in their clinical presentation throughout their course. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collection represents a rather appealing method that can be used to conveniently and noninvasively collect a wide range of volatile and non-volatile molecules from the respiratory tract, without affecting airway function or inflammaticn. Although promising, EBC is currently used only as a research tool, due to the lack of appropriate standardization and the absence of reference values. The large number of measurable biomarkers and the diversity of the used methodologies are some of the points that hamper its wide clinical application. This review focuses mainly on the presentation of normal values of the most widely studied EBC markers as reported by investigators that have used healthy subjects as controls or as a basic study population. These biomarkers include hydrogen peroxide, NO-related products, arachidonic acid metabolites and pH. From those biomarkers, the only one with established reference values in healthy subjects is EBC pH, whereas the majority of the rest need further refinement and standardization of the methodologies used. Different subpopulations and the effect of various factors on healthy subjects are also reported, in an effort to delineate future directions that may lead to the establishment of reference values. © 2008 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.en
dc.source.urihttp://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-42049090977&partnerID=40&md5=882885bf555df155074f71ada3deaca7
dc.subject8-isoprostaneen
dc.subjectBiomarkersen
dc.subjectExhaled breath condensateen
dc.subjectHealthy subjectsen
dc.subjectHydrogen peroxideen
dc.subjectNormal valuesen
dc.subjectpHen
dc.subject3 nitrotyrosineen
dc.subject8 isoprostaneen
dc.subjectadenosineen
dc.subjectadenosine phosphateen
dc.subjectaldehydeen
dc.subjectammoniaen
dc.subjectarachidonic aciden
dc.subjectbiological markeren
dc.subjectbudesonideen
dc.subjectglutathioneen
dc.subjectinterleukin 6en
dc.subjectipratropium bromideen
dc.subjectisoprostaneen
dc.subjectleukotrieneen
dc.subjectmethacholineen
dc.subjectnitrateen
dc.subjectnitric oxideen
dc.subjectnitriteen
dc.subjectozoneen
dc.subjectprostaglandinen
dc.subjects nitrosothiolen
dc.subjectsalbutamolen
dc.subjectthiobarbituric acid reactive substanceen
dc.subjectthromboxaneen
dc.subjecttumor necrosis factor alphaen
dc.subjectadulten
dc.subjectage determinationen
dc.subjectasthmaen
dc.subjectbreath analysisen
dc.subjectbreathingen
dc.subjectchronic obstructive lung diseaseen
dc.subjectcircadian rhythmen
dc.subjectcystic fibrosisen
dc.subjectexerciseen
dc.subjectexpired airen
dc.subjecthumanen
dc.subjecthyperbarismen
dc.subjectmethodologyen
dc.subjectobesityen
dc.subjectpH measurementen
dc.subjectreference valueen
dc.subjectreviewen
dc.subjectsex determinationen
dc.subjectsmokingen
dc.subjectsputum analysisen
dc.subjectBiological Markersen
dc.subjectBreath Testsen
dc.subjectEicosanoidsen
dc.subjectExhalationen
dc.subjectHumansen
dc.subjectNitrogen Compoundsen
dc.subjectReference Valuesen
dc.subjectReproducibility of Resultsen
dc.titleBiomarkers in the exhaled breath condensate of healthy adults: Mapping the path towards reference valuesen
dc.typejournalArticleen


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