Self-regulated learning in physical education: Examining the effects of emulative and self-control practice
Objective: This study examined the effectiveness of sequential practice from the emulation to the self-control level of the social cognitive model of self-regulated learning development. The model proposes that students who practice with social feedback at the emulation level first and then set goals and self-record their performance at the self-control level master sport skills effectively. Design: The design included one between-subjects factor, the group with five levels and one within-subjects factor, time (pre-test, post-test). Method: One hundred fifth and sixth grade students (40 boys and 60 girls) were assigned to four experimental and one control group and practiced the basketball dribble. Results: The results showed that students of all experimental groups improved their dribbling performance from pre- to post-test. Students who received social feedback and observed repeated demonstrations at the emulation level and then set process or performance goals and self-recorded their performance at the self-control level improved their dribbling performance more than students who missed emulative practice. No improvement was found for control group students. Conclusions: These results supported the effectiveness of the social cognitive model of self-regulated learning development, showing that this model can be used as an instructional approach for teaching sport skills in physical education. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.