The effects of the reciprocal and the self-check styles on pupils' performance in primary physical education
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of the reciprocal and the self-check teaching styles on pupils' basketball chest pass performance and on related psychosocial variables in a single physical education session. Participants were 64 fifth and sixth grade pupils between 11 and 12 years of age who were randomly assigned to three experimental (reciprocal style, self-check style, sequential use of reciprocal and self-check style) and one control group. The results showed that the three experimental groups outperformed the control group in chest pass accuracy and form, but no differences among the experimental groups were found. Moreover, no differences among the four groups in self-efficacy, satisfaction, effort, and enjoyment were found. These results showed that the reciprocal and the self-check styles are effective in enhancing pupils' performance and are discussed with reference to self-regulated learning development in primary school physical education.