Self-Regulated Learning of a Motor Skill Through Emulation and Self-Control Levels in a Physical Education Setting
This study examined the effectiveness of the second and third level of Zimmerman's (2000) model of self-regulated learning development. Participants were 72 (28 boys and 44 girls) fifth- and sixth-grade students who practiced the novel task of dart-throwing. Results showed that sixth-grade Greek students who proceeded sequentially from the emulation to the self-control level improved their dart-throwing performance more than students who missed one or both of these levels, but fifth- grade students benefited equally either from the sequential practice at the emulation and the self-control level or from the experience at one of these self-regulatory levels. No differences were found in self-efficacy, although sixth-grade students who practiced at the emulation level reported higher satisfaction, and sixth-grade students who practiced at the self-control level reported higher intrinsic motivation compared to control group students. These results attest to the effectiveness of learning at the emulation and self-control levels and are discussed with reference to the social cognitive model of self-regulation development.