Magnetohydrodynamic natural convection in a vertical cylindrical cavity with sinusoidal upper wall temperature
A series of numerical simulations were performed in order to study liquid metal MHD natural convection in a vertical cylindrical container with a sinusoidal temperature distribution at the upper wall and the other surfaces being adiabatic. Starting from the basic hydrodynamic case, the effect of vertical (axial) and horizontal magnetic fields is assessed. Depending on the magnitude of the Rayleigh and Hartmann numbers, both turbulent and laminar (azimuthally symmetric or not) flows are observed. The results show that the increase of Rayleigh number promotes heat transfer by convection while the increase of Hartmann number favors heat conduction. The vertical magnetic field reduces the Nusselt number more than the horizontal. The circulation patterns for the most convective cases are confined close to the top corner of the container with the simultaneous formation of a secondary flow pattern at the bottom corner, while for the more conductive cases only one circulation pattern exists covering the entire domain. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.