Adiposity and Low-Grade Systemic Inflammation Modulate Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Levels in Greek Children With Sleep Apnea
AuthorKaditis, A. G.; Alexopoulos, E. I.; Karathanasi, A.; Ntamagka, G.; Oikonomidi, S.; Kiropoulos, T. S.; Zintzaras, E.; Gourgoulianis, K.
Background: Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) plasma levels correlate with C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations and they are both increased in adults with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). No studies have evaluated MMP-9 levels in children with sleep apnea and CRP is not consistently elevated in pediatric OSA. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the association of severity of OSA, adiposity, and CRP with MMP-9 plasma levels in Greek children. Methods: Consecutive children with snoring who underwent polysomnography and were found to have OSA (obstructive apnea-hypopnea index-OAHI >= 1 episode/hr) were recruited. Subjects without OSA (OAHI < 1 episode/hr) were included for comparison. Morning plasma MMP-9 and CRP were measured. Results: Twenty-nine children with moderate-to-severe OSA (age 5.4 +/- 1.5 years; OAHI 13.9 +/- 13.0 episodes/hr), 55 participants with mild OSA (6.4 +/- 2.6 years; OAHI 2.4 +/- 1.1 episodes/hr) and 22 subjects without OSA (6.8 +/- 2.6 years; OAHI 0.6 +/- 0.2 episodes/hr) were studied. Children with moderate-to-severe OSA were similar to those with mild OSA or without OSA regarding In-transformed MMP-9 values (5.87 +/- 0.60 vs. 5.84 +/- 0.55 vs. 5.80 +/- 0.46; P > 0.05) and CRP concentrations (0.22 +/- 0.29 mg/dl vs. 0.21 +/- 0.36 vs. 0.13 +/- 0.16 mg/dl; P > 0.05). In multiple linear regression, body mass index (P = 0.027) and CRP levels (P = 0.008), but not OAHI or SpO(2) nadir (P > 0.05), were significantly related to MMP-9 values. Conclusions: Adiposity and systemic inflammation unrelated to OSA severity, modulate MMP-9 levels in Greek children. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2010; 45:693-699. (C) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.