Examining factors associated with intrinsic motivation in physical education: a qualitative approach
Objectives. To provide further information regarding factors associated with students' intrinsic motivation in physical education using a qualitative approach. Design and Methods. Sixteen in-depth interviews were conducted with secondary physical education students who were selected from a pool of 254 students on the basis of their score on relevant questionnaires. Results. Analyses of interview transcripts revealed that factors associated with intrinsic motivation for participating in physical education were both social-environmental and individual differences. Individual differences in perceived competence, perceived autonomy, physical appearance, and goal orientation influenced students' intrinsic motivation. Social environmental factors included lesson content, the physical education teacher, classmates, and school athletic facilities, as well as physical activity behaviors of the family and family encouragement, participation in out-of-school athletic activities, media, cultural values and social preconceptions. Conclusions. A wide variety of social factors influence students' intrinsic motivation in physical education. These need to be taken into account when designing physical education lessons. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.