Immunoglobulin genes in multiple myeloma: Expressed and non-expressed repertoires, heavy and light chain pairings and somatic mutation patterns in a series of 101 cases
AuthorHadzidimitriou, A.; Stamatopoulos, K.; Belessi, C.; Lalayianni, C.; Stavroyianni, N.; Smilevska, T.; Hatzi, K.; Laoutaris, N.; Anagnostopoulos, A.; Kollia, P.; Fassas, A.
Background and Objectives. The available data on the immunoglobulin gene (IG) repertoire in multiple myeloma (MM) derive mainly from heavy chains; considerably less is known about light chains. We assessed in parallel IGH and IGK/IGL rearrangements in 101 MM patients so as to gain insight into: (i) IG repertoires; (ii) antigen impact; (iii) the role of receptor editing. Design and Methods. Bone marrow aspirates were collected from all cases. IGHV-(D)-J and IGLV-J rearrangements were amplified by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In all cases, IGKV-J rearrangements were analyzed in parallel on cDNA/genomic DNA. IGKV-KDE and IGKJ-C-INTRON-KDE were also amplified by DNA-PCR. RT-PCR products were directly sequenced. Results. IGHV3 genes predominated; the IGHV4-34 gene was used in only one case. Five IGKV and five IGLV genes accounted fcr the majority of in-frame, transcribed IGKV-J or IGLV-J rearrangements. Taking IGKV-J, IGKV-KDE and IGKJ-C-INTRON-KDE rearrangements together, biallelic IGK locus rearrangements were detected in 22/43 κ-MM cases. In λ-MMM, 36/42 cases had at least one rearranged IGK allele; 8/19 IGKV-J rearrangements in λ-MM were in-frame. All in-frame, transcribed IGH/IGK/IGL sequences were mutated; parallel heavy/light chain analysis demonstrated a comparable impact of somatic hypermutation. Interpretation and Conclusions. Biases in IG repertoire did not seem disease-related but followed a similar pattern to that of the normal repertoire. The under-representation of the IGHV4-34 gene provides an explanation for the paucity of autoimmune phenomena in MM. Somatic mutation patterns indicate the complementary role of MM IGH/IGK/IGL sequences in antigen recognition. Finally, the frequent inactivation of productive IGKV-J joints by secondary rearrangements in MM suggests active receptor editing. ©2006 Ferrata Storti Foundation.
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