Cyclocephala (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) evolution in Lesser West Indies indicates a Northward colonization by C. tridentata
A dual cytogenetic and molecular analysis was performed in four species of Cyclocepala (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) from Lesser Antilles (Martinique, Dominica and Guadeloupe). Two species/sub-species, C. mafaffa grandis and C. insulicola, are endemic to Guadeloupe. They have their own non-polymorphic karyotype and a fairly homogeneous haplotype of the COI gene. C. melanocephala rubiginosa has a distinct karyotype. Its COI haplotype is homogeneous in Guadeloupe and heterogeneous in Martinique. Finally, C. tridentata has highly different karyotypes and haplotypes in the three islands. In Martinique, its karyotype, composed of metacentrics, is monomorphic while its haplotype is fairly heterogeneous. Both are close to those of other Cyclocephala and Dynastinae species, thus fairly ancestral. In Guadeloupe, its karyotype is highly polymorphic, with many acrocentrics, and its haplotype fairly homogeneous. Both are highly derived. In Dominica, both the karyotype and the haplotype represent intermediate stages between those of Martinique and Guadeloupe. We conclude that several independent colonization episodes have occurred, which excludes that C. insulicola is a vicariant form of C. tridentata in Guadeloupe. Both chromosome and COI gene polymorphisms clearly indicate a recent colonization with a northward direction for C. tridentata.