Consumption of Agaricus bisporus mushroom affects the performance, intestinal microbiota composition and morphology, and antioxidant status of turkey poults
We investigated the consequences of consumption of Agaricus bisporus mushroom on turkey poults fed ad libitum a basal diet supplemented with the dried mushroom at levels of 0, 10 or 20 g/kg feed (treatments: CON, M10, M20) to 10 wk of age. Body weight, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were monitored weekly. The populations of total aerobes and anaerobes, Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacterium spp., Escherichia coli, Bacteroides spp. and Enterococci spp. were enumerated in ileum and caecum. Morphological examinations of the intestine were carried out on segments from small intestine. To evaluate the antioxidant status of turkeys, refrigerated liver, breast and thigh muscle were assayed for levels of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), reduced glutathione (GSH), and malondialdehyde (MDA). Dietary mushroom inclusion improved (P <= 0.05) both growth performance and feed efficiency. In the ileum, lactobacilli counts were higher (P <= 0.05) in supplemented turkeys at both inclusion levels compared to controls; E. coli counts were lower (P <= 0.05) in M20 compared to M10 group. In the caecum, the lactobacilli and bifidobacteria counts were higher (P <= 0.05) in M20 compared to controls. The ratio of E. coli to lactobacilli was lower (P <= 0.05) in M20 birds compared to controls in both ileum and caecum. Morphometrical examinations revealed an increase in villus height in all three intestinal sections of supplemented birds. Mushroom supplementation elevated (P <= 0.05) GSH-Px, GR, and GST activity and reduced (P <= 0.05) MDA production in tissues compared to controls. Dietary mushroom inclusion beneficially affected performance and exerted changes in intestinal microbial communities, intestinal integrity and antioxidant protective activity, consistent with the improvements in performance. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.