NMR Evidence of Charge-Dependent Interaction Between Various PND V3 and CCR5 N-Terminal Peptides
AuthorGalanakis, P. A.; Kandias, N. G.; Rizos, A. K.; Morikis, D.; Krambovitis, E.; Spyroulias, G. A.
The third variable (V3) loop is an important region of glycoprotein 120 (gp120) for many biological processes, as it contains the highly conserved GPGR sequence and it represents the binding site for human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) antibodies and for CCR5 and CXCR4 host cell coreceptors. The interaction of the principal neutralizing determinant (PND) V3 with the chemokine receptor CCR5 N-terminal region has been reported to be crucial for HTV-1 infection. The goal of this study is to characterize the solution structures of three HIV-1 gp120 V3 subtype B peptides and their interaction with a nonsulfated N-terminal CCR5 peptide. NMR titration experiments revealed that the CCR5Nt-PND V3 interaction is dependent on the number of the positively charged V3 residues, which is In agreement with the observation that increase in positive charge in the V3 sequence cot-relates with the augmentation of the interaction. As expected for free peptides in solution, the peptides representing the PND V3 region of gp120 exhibit conformational flexibility, but they also exhibit a large number of NOEs which allowed convergence to a dominant conformation. The PND V3 peptides retain the U-turn conformation observed in the crystal structures of gp120 complexes independently of CCR5 presence. The interaction of different regions of the CCR5Nt peptide is gradually increasing proportionally to the positive charge increase in the V3 peptides. The data demonstrate that the PND V3 and CCR5Nt peptide sequences have propensities for interaction even in the absence of sulfated tyrosines and that their binding and selectivity is determined by simple electrostatic attraction mechanisms. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 92: 94-109, 2009.