Serum and cerebrospinal fluid C-reactive protein levels as predictors of vasospasm in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage
AuthorFountas, K. N.; Tasiou, A.; Kapsalaki, E. Z.; Paterakis, K. N.; Grigorian, A. A.; Lee, G. P.; Robinson, J. S.
Object. Cerebral vasospasm is a common and potentially devastating complication of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Inflammatory processes seem to play a major role in the pathogenesis of vasospasm. The C-reactive protein (CRP) constitutes a highly sensitive inflammatory marker. The association of elevated systemic CRP and coronary vasospasm has been well established. Additionally, elevation of the serum CRP levels has been demonstrated in patients with aSAH. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the possible relationship between elevated CRP levels in the serum and CSF and the development of vasospasm in patients with aSAH. Methods. A total of 41 adult patients in whom aSAH was diagnosed were included in the study. Their demographics, the admitting Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, Hunt and Hess grade, Fisher grade, CT scans, digital subtraction angiography studies, and daily neurological examinations were recorded. Serial serum and CSF CRP measurements were obtained on Days 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, and 9. All patients underwent either surgical or endovascular treatment within 48 hours of their admission. The outcome was evaluated using the Glasgow Outcome Scale and the modified Rankin Scale. Results. The CRP levels in serum and CSF peaked on the 3rd postadmission day, and the CRP levels in CSF were always higher than the serum levels. Patients with lower admission GCS scores and higher Hunt and Hess and Fisher grades had statistically significantly higher levels of CRP in serum and CSF. Patients with angiographic vasospasm had higher CRP measurements in serum and CSF, in a statistically significant fashion (p < 0.0001). Additionally, patients with higher CRP levels in serum and CSF had less favorable outcome in this cohort. Conclusions. Patients with aSAH who had high Hunt and Hess and Fisher grades and low GCS scores showed elevated CRP levels in their CSF and serum. Furthermore, patients developing angiographically proven vasospasm demonstrated significantly elevated CRP levels in serum and CSF, and increased CRP measurements were strongly associated with poor clinical outcome in this cohort. (DOI: 10.3171/2009.2.FOCUS08311)