Acute and Short-term Effects of Secondhand Smoke on Lung Function and Cytokine Production
AuthorFlouris, A. D.; Metsios, G. S.; Carrillo, A. E.; Jamurtas, A. Z.; Gourgoulianis, K.; Kiropoulos, T.; Tzatzarakis, M. N.; Tsatsakis, A. M.; Koutedakis, Y.
Rationale: The acute effect of secondhand smoke (SHS) on lung function and the duration of system disruption remain unknown. Objectives: To assess the SHS effects and their duration on lung function and inflammatory markers. Methods: In a randomized single-blind crossover experiment data were obtained from 16 (8 women) nonsmoking adults at baseline and at 0, 1, and 3 hours after a 1-hour SHS exposure set at bar/restaurant SHIS levels. Measurements and Main Results: Serum and urine cotinine, lung function, and cytokines IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and IFN-gamma. At 0 hours most lung function parameters were significantly reduced (indicative: FEV(1), 4.3 +/- 0.4 vs. 3.8 +/- 0.3 L; FEV(1),/FVC, 0.9 +/- 0.1 vs. 0.8 +/- 0.1; P < 0.05) but at 3 hours they were at baseline levels. In contrast, cotinine (serum, 8.9 +/- 3.2 vs. 35.5 +/- 10.2 ng.ml(-1)), IL-4 (41.3 +/- 5.8 vs. 44.2 +/- 4.5 pg.ml(-1)), IL-5 (36.1 +/- 3.2 vs. 60.1 +/- 7.0 pg.ml(-1)), IL-6 (2.5 +/- 0.3 vs. 7.6 +/- 1.4 pg.ml(-1)) and IFN-gamma (0.3 +/- 0.2 vs. 0.6 +/- 0.2 IU.ml(-1)) at 3 hours were higher than at baseline (P < 0.05). ILA and TNF-alpha increased only in men, whereas IL-5, IL-6, and IFN-gamma were different between sexes after exposure (P < 0.05). Regression analyses revealed inverse associations of FEV, and FEV,/FVC ratio with IL-5 (P < 0.05) in men and with IL-5 (P = 0.01), IL-6 (P < 0.001), IFN-gamma (P = 0.034) and serum cotinine (P < 0.001) in women. Conclusions: We conclude that I hour of SHIS exposure at bar/restaurant levels is accompanied by significant decrements on lung function and marked increases in inflammatory cytokines, particularly in men. More importantly, whereas most smoke-induced effects on lung function appear to recede within 60 minutes, inflammatory cytokines remain elevated for at least 3 hours after exposure to SHS.