Respiratory and Immune Response to Maximal Physical Exertion following Exposure to Secondhand Smoke in Healthy Adults
AuthorFlouris, A. D.; Metsios, G. S.; Carrill, A. E.; Jamurtas, A. Z.; Stivaktakis, P. D.; Tzatzarakis, M. N.; Tsatsakis, A. M.; Koutedakis, Y.
We assessed the cardiorespiratory and immune response to physical exertion following secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure through a randomized crossover experiment. Data were obtained from 16 (8 women) non-smoking adults during and following a maximal oxygen uptake cycling protocol administered at baseline and at 0-, 1-, and 3-hours following 1-hour of SHS set at bar/restaurant carbon monoxide levels. We found that SHS was associated with a 12% decrease in maximum power output, an 8.2% reduction in maximal oxygen consumption, a 6% increase in perceived exertion, and a 6.7% decrease in time to exhaustion (P<0.05). Moreover, at 0-hours almost all respiratory and immune variables measured were adversely affected (P<0.05). For instance, FEV1 values at 0-hours dropped by 17.4%, while TNF-alpha increased by 90.1% (P<0.05). At 3-hours mean values of cotinine, perceived exertion and recovery systolic blood pressure in both sexes, IL4, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma in men, as well as FEV1/FVC, percent predicted FEV1, respiratory rate, and tidal volume in women remained different compared to baseline (P<0.05). It is concluded that a 1-hour of SHS at bar/restaurant levels adversely affects the cardiorespiratory and immune response to maximal physical exertion in healthy nonsmokers for at least three hours following SHS.