Surgical treatment of hip fractures: factors influencing mortality
AuthorDailiana, Z.; Papakostidou, I.; Varitimidis, S.; Michalitsis, S. G.; Veloni, A.; Malizos, K. N.
Background: Data for osteoporotic hip fractures in Greece is limited and little is known upon the meaning of family support during the postoperative/rehabilitation period. Objective: To identify the factors influencing the mortality after hip fractures in the elderly, the effect of rehabilitation and family support in the post-fracture course, and the impact of these fractures on the family of the injured elderly. Methods: We conducted an observational study of 218 consecutive patients older than 60 years of age, who underwent surgical management of a unilateral hip fracture at a tertiary hospital of Central Greece, with follow-up contacts at 30 days, 3 months and one year. Demographic characteristics, pre- and post-fracture residential and functional status, assessment of basic activities of daily living (ADL), co-morbidities, type and mechanism of fracture and hospitalization data as well as the modification of activities of the patients' relatives were recorded. Results: Fifteen patients (6.9%) died during hospitalization; thirty-nine (17.9%) died within one year of fracture. The factors that were predictive of in-hospital, 30-days and one-year mortality, based on multivariate analysis, were male sex, advanced age >85 and Charson index >3. There was a significant association between delayed surgery (>48 hours) and increased in-hospital mortality. The percentage of patients assessed as ADL A or B at baseline, decreased form 84% preoperatively to 50.4% one year postoperatively. Only one-third of patients walking without aid before the fracture returned to the previous state. Family members modified their activities in 48% of cases to assist their relatives with a hip fracture. Conclusions: One-year mortality in patients with hip fractures was 17.9%. Surgical delay (>48 hours) increased inhospital mortality. Comorbidities >3, male sex, and advanced age increased the risk of in-hospital and post-discharge mortality during the 1st year. Twelve months postoperatively, half of patients walking without aid before the fracture returned to the previous state. Despite the beneficial effect of family support, the lack of organized rehabilitation programs and geriatric units are potential negative factors for patients' functional outcome. In addition, 48% of patients' relatives changed their daily activities to assist their relatives.