Reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs) as an index of oxidative stress in obstructive sleep apnea patients
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome, a common disorder characterized by repetitive pharyngeal collapse during sleep, is receiving increased attention because of convincing data showing important neurocognitive and cardiovascular sequelae. This chapter describes the diagnostic criteria, epidemiology, risk factors, pathogenesis, clinical presentations, consequences, and management of OSA. The chapter also explains the concepts of oxidative damage, pro-oxidants, free radicals, and antioxidants and describes the assays used for the assessment of antioxidants and antioxidant activity. Endogenous sources of free radicals, or reactive oxygen species (ROS), have been found to be relevant to the physiology and pathophysiology of OSAS. Sleep apnea is accompanied by profound episodes of hypoxia, followed intermittently by a rapid reoxygenation of the blood, which is analogous to repeated reperfusion injury that is inflicted because of free-radical production during reoxygenation. Studies from many researchers have given strong evidences for a correlation between oxidative stress (OS) and OSA syndrome. The diagnostic value of the Diacron (FRAS-3) reactive oxygen metabolites (D-ROM) test could be such that enhanced values of OS would be markers for sleep-disordered breathing and provide additional information for the diagnosis of OSA syndrome. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.