Baseline characteristics of the 4011 patients recruited into the 'Efficacy of Nitric Oxide in Stroke' (ENOS) trial
AuthorBath, P. M. W.; Adami, A.; Bereczki, D.; Berge, E.; Beridze, M.; Cala, L.; Casado, A.; Caso, V.; Chang, H. M.; Christensen, H.; Collins, R.; Czlonkowska, A.; Dineen, R. A.; El Etribi, A.; Ghani, A. R.; Gommans, J.; Koumellis, P.; Laska, A. C.; Lees, K. R.; Navarro, J.; Ntaios, G.; Ozturk, S.; Phillips, S.; Pocock, S.; Prasad, K.; Scutt, P.; de Silva, H. A.; Szatmari, S.; Diez-Tejedor, E.; Utton, S.; Wang, Y. J.; Wardlaw, J. M.; Whynes, D.; Wong, L.; Woodhouse, L.; Sprigg, N.; Investigators, Enos
Background High blood pressure is common in acute stroke and associated with a worse functional outcome. Many patients who present with acute stroke are taking prescribed antihypertensive therapy before their stroke. Aims ENOS tested whether lowering blood pressure and continuing pre-stroke antihypertensive therapy are each safe and effective. Methods This study is an international multi-centre prospective randomized single-blind blinded-endpoint parallel-group partial-factorial controlled trial of transdermal glyceryl trinitrate (a nitric oxide donor, given for seven-days) vs. no glyceryl trinitrate, and of continuing vs. stopping (temporarily for seven-days) pre-stroke antihypertensive drugs if relevant, in patients with acute ischaemic stroke or intracerebral haemorrhage and high systolic blood pressure (140-220 mmHg). Results Recruitment ran from July 2001 to October 2013. Four thousand eleven patients [2097 (52.3%) in the continue/stop arm] were recruited from 173 sites across 23 countries in 5 continents (Asia 14%, Continental Europe 16%, UK 64%). Baseline characteristics include: mean age 70 (standard deviation 12) years; male 57%; mean time from stroke to recruitment 26 (13) h; mean severity (Scandinavian Stroke Scale) 34 (13) of 58; mean blood pressure 167 (19)/90 (13) mmHg; ischaemic stroke 83%; and intracerebral haemorrhage 16%. The main trial results will be presented in May 2014. The results will also be presented in updated Cochrane systematic reviews and included in individual patient data meta-analyses of all relevant randomized controlled trials. Conclusion ENOS is a large completed international trial of blood pressure management in acute stroke and includes patients representative of many stroke services worldwide.